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  1. Research

    Training emergency physicians in sex- and gender-based medicine: assessing attitudes of program directors and residency graduates

    Sex and gender influence disease presentation, treatment, healthcare access, and long-term outcomes. It is uncertain to what extent sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content has been integrated into emerge...

    Tracy E. Madsen and Alyson J. McGregor

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):48

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  2. Commentary

    Integrating topics of sex and gender into medical curricula—lessons from the international community

    In the era of individualized medicine, training future scientists and health-care providers in the principles of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease is critical in order to optimize patient...

    Virginia M. Miller, Georgios Kararigas, Ute Seeland, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Karolina Kublickiene, Gillian Einstein, Robert Casanova and Marianne J. Legato

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):44

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  3. Research

    The science of sex and gender in human health: online courses to create a foundation for sex and gender accountability in biomedical research and treatment

    Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention h...

    Jennifer L. Plank-Bazinet, Annie Sampson, Leah R. Miller, Emmanuel O. Fadiran, Deborah Kallgren, Rajeev K. Agarwal, Whitney Barfield, Claudette E. Brooks, Lisa Begg, Amy C. Mistretta, Pamela E. Scott, Janine Austin Clayton and Terri L. Cornelison

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):47

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  4. Commentary

    Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation

    The Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women’s Health, Mayo Cli...

    Eliza L. Chin, Marley Hoggatt, Alyson J. McGregor, Mary K. Rojek, Kimberly Templeton, Robert Casanova, Wendy S. Klein, Virginia M. Miller and Marjorie Jenkins

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):52

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  5. Review

    How to study the impact of sex and gender in medical research: a review of resources

    There is a growing appreciation by the biomedical community that studying the impact of sex and gender on health, aging, and disease will lead to improvements in human health. Sex- and gender-based comparisons...

    Alyson J. McGregor, Memoona Hasnain, Kathryn Sandberg, Mary F. Morrison, Michelle Berlin and Justina Trott

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):46

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  6. Research

    Sex and gender in medical education: a national student survey

    Gender- and sex-specific medicine is defined as the practice of medicine based on the understanding that biology (dictated by sex chromosomes) and social roles (gender) are important in and have implications f...

    Marjorie R. Jenkins, Alyssa Herrmann, Amanda Tashjian, Tina Ramineni, Rithika Ramakrishnan, Donna Raef, Tracy Rokas and John Shatzer

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):45

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  7. Commentary

    eGender—from e-Learning to e-Research: a web-based interactive knowledge-sharing platform for sex- and gender-specific medical education

    Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge int...

    Ute Seeland, Ahmad T. Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):39

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  8. Research

    Evaluation of sex- and gender-based medicine training in post-graduate medical education: a cross-sectional survey study

    Addressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influenc...

    Juliana M. Kling, Steven H. Rose, Lisa N. Kransdorf, Thomas R. Viggiano and Virginia M. Miller

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):38

    Published on: 14 October 2016

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  9. Research

    In utero origin of sex-related differences in future cardiovascular disease

    There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study exa...

    Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A. Helbing, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Eric A. P. Steegers and Bero O. Verburg

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:55

    Published on: 13 October 2016

  10. Research

    Reduction of apoptosis and preservation of mitochondrial integrity under ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by estrogen receptor β

    Estrogen improves cardiac recovery after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Mitochondria play a crucial role in I/R injury through cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis activation...

    Carola Schubert, Valeria Raparelli, Christina Westphal, Elke Dworatzek, George Petrov, Georgios Kararigas and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:53

    Published on: 23 September 2016

  11. Research

    Sex-specific effects of dietary fatty acids on saliva cortisol and social behavior in guinea pigs under different social environmental conditions

    Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavi...

    Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Arthur Kaplan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint and Bernard Wallner

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:51

    Published on: 22 September 2016

  12. Research

    Sex-related factors influence expression of mood-related genes in the basolateral amygdala differentially depending on age and stress exposure

    Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem...

    Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis and Marianne L. Seney

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:50

    Published on: 17 September 2016

  13. Review

    Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, a...

    Charles P. Madenjian, Richard R. Rediske, David P. Krabbenhoft, Martin A. Stapanian, Sergei M. Chernyak and James P. O’Keefe

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:42

    Published on: 2 September 2016

  14. Research

    Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in mice

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phen...

    Helena Rakov, Kathrin Engels, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Karl-Heinz Strucksberg, Lars Christian Moeller, Josef Köhrle, Denise Zwanziger and Dagmar Führer

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:36

    Published on: 24 August 2016

  15. Commentary

    Organ transplantation and gender differences: a paradigmatic example of intertwining between biological and sociocultural determinants

    Organ transplantation, e.g., of the heart, liver, or kidney, is nowadays a routine strategy to counteract several lethal human pathologies. From literature data and from data obtained in Italy, a striking scen...

    Francesca Puoti, Andrea Ricci, Alessandro Nanni-Costa, Walter Ricciardi, Walter Malorni and Elena Ortona

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:35

    Published on: 28 July 2016

  16. Research

    Estrous cycle influences excitatory amino acid transport and visceral pain sensitivity in the rat: effects of early-life stress

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a recognized risk factor for chronic pain disorders, and females appear to be more sensitive to the negative effects of stress. Moreover, estrous cycle-related fluctuations in estrog...

    Rachel D. Moloney, Jahangir Sajjad, Tara Foley, Valeria D. Felice, Timothy G. Dinan, John F. Cryan and Siobhain M. O’Mahony

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:33

    Published on: 14 July 2016

  17. Research

    Male and female hypertrophic rat cardiac myocyte functional responses to ischemic stress and β-adrenergic challenge are different

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most potent cardiovascular risk factor after age, and relative mortality risk linked with cardiac hypertrophy is greater in women. Ischemic heart disease is the most common form of c...

    James R. Bell, Claire L. Curl, Tristan W. Harding, Martin Vila Petroff, Stephen B. Harrap and Lea M. D. Delbridge

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:32

    Published on: 7 July 2016

  18. Review

    Sex-specific effects of LiCl treatment on preservation of renal function and extended life-span in murine models of SLE: perspective on insights into the potential basis for survivorship in NZB/W female mice

    Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a sy...

    David A. Hart

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:31

    Published on: 27 June 2016

  19. Letter to the Editor

    Prohibitin: an unexpected role in sex dimorphic functions

    Sex differences are known to exist in adipose and immune functions in the body, and sex steroid hormones are known to be involved in sexually dimorphic biological and pathological processes related to adipose-...

    K. Hoa Nguyen, Sudharsana R. Ande and Suresh Mishra

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:30

    Published on: 24 June 2016

  20. Research

    Characterization of osteoarthritic human knees indicates potential sex differences

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is higher in women than in men in every age group, and overall prevalence increases with advancing age. Sex-specific differences in the properties of osteoarthritic joint tissu...

    Qingfen Pan, Mary I. O’Connor, Richard D. Coutts, Sharon L. Hyzy, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz and Barbara D. Boyan

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:27

    Published on: 2 June 2016

  21. Research

    Gene changes may minimize masculinizing and defeminizing influences of exposure to male cotwins in female callitrichine primates

    Sexual differentiation in female mammals can be altered by the proximity of male littermates in utero, a phenomenon known as the intrauterine position effect (IUP). Among simian primates, callitrichines (marmo...

    Jeffrey A. French, Brett Frye, Jon Cavanaugh, Dongren Ren, Aaryn C. Mustoe, Lisa Rapaport and Jennifer Mickelberg

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:28

    Published on: 2 June 2016

  22. Research

    Age and sex dependent effects of early overnutrition on metabolic parameters and the role of neonatal androgens

    Males and females respond differently to diverse metabolic situations. Being raised in a small litter is reported to cause overnutrition that increases weight gain and predisposes an individual to metabolic di...

    Pilar Argente-Arizón, Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Esther Fuente-Martin, David Castro-González, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Garrido, Vicente Barrios, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente and Julie A. Chowen

    Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:26

    Published on: 18 May 2016

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